Trickle Irrigation

Test report are according to ANSIB and ASTMD which are Proved and checked by the Govt. Institution of plastic technology Center, KARACHI are as under:

Note:

This Whole trickle irrigation system has been developed by Dr. Shahid Ahmed (Director, WRRI, NARC Islamabad)

Trickle Irrigation system:

There is an increasing trend to move to piped water supply for irrigation. This is Particularly so where trickle irrigation is used.
The principle of trickle irrigation is to deliver sufficient water to the plant roots, thus achieving a more efficient management of limited water resources.
The advantages of Trickle Irrigation are:

01- water economy (30-50%) compared to furrow Irrigation thus large areas can be watered for a given water resource.

02- Improved Quality and Size for product.

03- Increased yield of 20-40% compared with furrow irrigation and of 10-20% over spray irrigation.

04- The Possibility of using water with a higher mineral content (Saline) since the salt leads to the periphery of the root zone, permitted root formation within
the zone but a way from the salt concentration itself.

05- Space between the beds is dry and this assists harvesting operation while undesirable weed growth greatly reduce.

Various trickle irrigation system have been designed which are of two basic types:

The first type is based on plastic pipes, mostly in LD PE tube developed by Chapin in the USA as a means of ensuring as sallow discharge of water (Trickle),
at a relatively uniform flow Pattern, over a long length for tubing (80meters).

while another development of trickle irrigation in the USA is a Viaflo system in which a flat sheath is produce from fibrous PE such that water wets whole surface.

The Systems all involve the distribution of water at low pressure of 1-2kg/cm2 (14-28ib/sq.in) which is further reduce at the plants to few hundred of grms /cm2
so that the water emerges drop by drop trickle, or as last resort in a very fine, stream. Sophistication of the process involves the introduction of metered
nutrient solutions into the irrigation system for more economical utilization of resources.

Stress Checking:

Plastic Pipes said to be polyethylene for environmental stress cracking test.

Tested to ASTM-D 1639 except Sample thickness 2.5mm instead of range 3.3mm as in table-1 (ASTM D-1693) Samples for test were Compression molded
at 170c and 1100 psi reagent used was bright detergent washing powder in saturated solution.

Time:

48hrs, 96Hrs, 164Hrs, 174hrs.

Failure:

20%, 30%, 70%, 100%.

Standards Requirement:

(ASTM-D3350) Test Condition A.

Maximum Failure allowed 50% in 40 Hours.

Conclusion:

Pipe Samples Supplied

Satisfied ASTMD-3350

Weather Resistance:

Like most natural material and other plastic on prolonged outdoor exposure, Polyethylene is degraded by weathering agencies, Particularly by the combined
effect of the short-wave ultraviolet portion of sunlight and atmospheric oxygen. Protected these effects by the addition of carbon black. Further more stabilizers
are added to the material to counter any possible heat aging. Because it contains carbon black the most effective protection against UV-GM 5010 T2 is only
supplied thismaterial to can be storage or used outdoor over a long period of time without any fear of a change in properties.

The yellow Material for gas pipe contains suitable light stabilizers. These ensure resistance to the ultraviolet rays of sunlight for an outdoor storage.

Flammability:

Polyethylene is a material with normal flammability it ignites on contact with flame and burns with a faintly luminous flame. it continues to burn when the ignite
source is removed and melts with burning drip. The usual hydrocarbon combustion CO, SO2 and water are formed, but no corrosive gases and residues.